Abduction: Movement of the straight legs, accomplished by contraction of the leg abductor muscles (the sarorius, primarily), from a fully abducted position back to one in which the legs are again pressed together.
Advanced Trainee: An individual with at least one year of steady, systematic resistance training experience.
Aerobic Exercise: Prolonged, moderate - intensity work that uses up oxygen at or below the level at which your cardiorespiratory system can replenish oxygen in the working muscles. Aerobic literally means ?with oxygen?, and the only type of exercise that burns body fat to meet its energy needs. Bodybuilders engage in aerobic workouts to develop additional heart / lung fitness, as well as to burn off excess body fat to achieve peak contest muscularity. Common aerobic activities include running, cycling, stair climbing, swimming, dancing, and walking. Depending on how vigorously you play them, most racket sports can also be aerobic exercise.
Anaerobic Exercise: Exercise of much higher intensity than aerobic work, which uses up oxygen more quickly than the body can replenish it in the working muscles. Anaerobic exercise eventually builds up a significant oxygen debt that forces an athlete to terminate the exercise session rather quickly. Anaerobic exercise (the kind of exercise to which bodybuilding training belongs) burns up glycogen (muscle sugar) to supply its energy needs. Fast sprinting is a typical anaerobic form of exercise.
Ankle Collar: The ankle collar is a wide, leather ankle bracelet which you clip to pulleys to perform exercises such as left lifts, and leg curls. It is largely used for leg exercises.
Arm Blaster: Using an arm blaster is a very strict way to perform barbell (or E - Z bar) curls. Using an arm blaster promotes a similar effect as using a preacher bench. No elbow movement at all, and strict isolation of the biceps.
Ballistic Stretch: This involves dynamic muscle action where the muscles are stretched suddenly in a bouncing movement. For example, a ballistic stretch for the hamstrings might involve touching your toes repeatedly in rapid succession. The problem with this stretching technique is that rapid stretches invoke a powerful stretch receptor response that can result in injury. Further, after you do these exercises, the stretch receptors are overactive. This may lead to injury during an activity such as running or playing tennis.
Bar: The steel shaft that forms the basic part of a barbell or dumbbell. These bars are normally about one inch thick, and they are often encased in a revolving metal sleeve.
Barbell: Normally measuring between four and six feet in length, a barbell is the most basic piece of equipment used in weight training and bodybuilding. You can train every major muscle group using only a barbell. There are two major types of exercise where barbells are used: adjustable sets (in which you add or subtract plates to achieve the total weight desired), and fixed barbells (in which the plates are either welded or bolted in place and the total weight of the barbell is a set number). You may see fixed weights arranged by poundage in various gyms. The total weight of that barbell will likely be etched or painted on the plates. Fixed weights will save you the time of adjusting the weight in between sets. Adjustable weights are seen more commonly in home gyms, because it is very cost efficient to buy a bar, with several plates and clips to lock the weight in place.
Beginning Bodybuilder: An individual with less than six months of bodybuilding experience.
Bench: A wide variety of exercise benches are available for use in doing barbell and dumbbell exercises either lying or seated. The most common type of bench, a flat exercise bench, can be used for chest, shoulder, and arm movements. Incline and decline benches (which are set at various angles, normally between 30 to 45 degrees) also allow movements for the chest, shoulders, and arms. Adjustable benches are available for home gym use. They can be adjusted to flat, incline or decline angles.
Belts: Belts are supposed to aid you in a lift by taking pressure off the lower back when lifting very heavy weights. They will certainly help you if your goal is to develop power, and you attempt to achieve this through power lifting which consists of the three basic compound movements, squats, bench press, and dead lifting, all performed in a very low rep range. A weight belt will stabilize the upper body by increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity, and will reduce pressure in the lower back. Belts can offer a feeling of security and the knowledge that the chances of injury is lessened. However, belts are not necessary in all exercises. Stabilizing your upper body is simply not crucial for some lifts, and sporting a belt in those circumstances will not help you to achieve your goal to any greater degree. I recommend wearing a belt for big lifts, especially compound movements, done with heavy weights.
Biceps Machines: Biceps machines offer a variety of advantages to biceps training, and are advantageous to include in your workouts. With biceps machines, you can do heavy forced negatives. Your workout partner can press down on the weight as you resist during the downward part of the movement. You can get a longer range of motion, giving your more stretch and total contraction.
Biomechanics: The scientific study of body positions, or form, in sport. In bodybuilding, kinesiology studies body form when exercising with weights. When you have good biomechanics in a bodybuilding exercise, you will be safely placing maximum beneficial stress on your working muscles.
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