Hi, is this your first visit to MuscleMecca?
  • The Facebook Platform
Results 1 to 6 of 6
  1. Back To Top    #1

    How to Calculate Your Daily Caloric Needs

    To calculate your BMR based on your total body weight (Harris-Benedict Formula)

    BMR= basal metabolic rate

    BMR (women) = 665 + (9.6 x weight in Kg) + (1.8 x height in cm) - (4.7 x age in years)

    BMR (men) = 66 + (13.7 x weight in Kg) + (5 x height in cm) - (6.8 x age in years)

    To calculate your BMR based on lean body weight (Katch-McArdle Formula)

    BMR (both sexes) = 370 + (21.6 x lean mass in kg)

    THis will give you what your body requires for all of your basic biological processes, such as digestion, nerve transmission, respiration etc, or your basal metabolic rate.


    To figure out how many calories you need for the day multiply your BMR by your activity levels
    Sedentary BMR x 1.2 no exercise/desk job
    Lightly active BMR x 1.375 light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week
    Moderately active BMR x 1.55 moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week
    Very active BMR x 1.725 hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/week
    Extremely active BMR x 1.9 hard daily training/physical job or training 2x/day

    To lose weight/fat, obviously, you do need to burn more calories than you need!!
    So, take about 10-20 % off of your total calorie requirements

    To put on weight/muscle, you need more calories than your basic daily needs so ADD about 10-20% to your total calorie daily requirements.

    If you change your calorie intake too drastically, your body may not do what you want it to do.

    'Starvation' diets (very low calorie) only work on about 5% of the population, and too low calories or rapid 'weight' loss will probably be muscle and water, rather than the fat you want.

    Similarily if you go from a 2500 kcal/day average to 4000 kcals, you are more likely putting on FAT and water rather than muscle.

    1 g carbs = 4 kcals
    1 g protein = 4 kcals
    1 g fat = 9 kcals

    After sorting out your daily intake, you have to work out the percentage of each of the macronutrients:

    Carbohydrate Definitions:

    Very High carbs = 65-70% +
    High carbs = 55-60 %
    Moderate carbs = 40-50 %
    Low carbs = 25-30%
    Very low carb (ketogenic) = 5-15 % or 30- 70 grams carbs per day

    Protein Definitions
    Very high protein = 41-50 % +
    High protein = 31-40 %
    Moderate protein = 25-30 %
    Low Protein = 15-24%
    Very low protein = less than 15%

    Fat definitions
    Very high fat = 40% +
    High fat = 30-39%
    Moderate fat = 20 -29%
    Low fat = 10-19 %
    Very low fat = less than 10%

    Definitions for macronutrient percentages taken from Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle by Tom Venuto


    Basal Metabolic Rate - BMR

    Your basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the minimum calorific requirement needed to Sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day!

    BMR can be responsible for burning up to 70% of the total calories expended, but this figure varies due to different factors (see below). Calories are burned by bodily processes such as respiration, the pumping of blood around the body and maintenance of body temperature. Obviously the body will burn more calories on top of those burned due to BMR.

    BMR is the largest factor in determining overall metabolic rate and how many calories you need to maintain, lose or gain weight. BMR is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as follows:

    Genetics. Some people are born with faster metabolisms; some with slower metabolisms.

    Gender. Men have a greater muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage. This means they have a higher basal metabolic rate.

    Age. BMR reduces with age. After 20 years, it drops about 2 per cent, per decade.

    Weight. The heavier your weight, the higher your BMR. Example: the metabolic rate of obese women is 25 percent higher than the metabolic rate of thin women.

    Body Surface Area. This is a reflection of your height and weight. The greater your Body Surface Area factor, the higher your BMR. Tall, thin people have higher BMRs. If you compare a tall person with a short person of equal weight, then if they both follow a diet calorie-controlled to maintain the weight of the taller person, the shorter person may gain up to 15 pounds in a year.

    Body Fat Percentage. The lower your body fat percentage, the higher your BMR. The lower body fat percentage in the male body is one reason why men generally have a 10-15% faster BMR than women.

    Diet. Starvation or serious abrupt calorie-reduction can dramatically reduce BMR by up to 30 percent.Restrictive low-calorie weight loss diets may cause your BMR to drop as much as 20%.

    Body Temperature/Health. For every increase of 0.5C in internal temperature of the body, the BMR increases by about 7 percent. The chemical reactions in the body actually occur more quickly at higher temperatures. So a patient with a fever of 42C (about 4C above normal) would have an increase of about 50 percent in BMR.

    External temperature. Temperature outside the body also affects basal metabolic rate. Exposure to cold temperature causes an increase in the BMR, so as to create the extra heat needed to maintain the body's internal temperature. A short exposure to hot temperature has little effect on the body's metabolism as it is compensated mainly by increased heat loss. But prolonged exposure to heat can raise BMR.

    Glands. Thyroxin (produced by the thyroid gland) is a key BMR-regulator which speeds up the metabolic activity of the body. The more thyroxin produced, the higher the BMR. If too much thyroxin is produced (a condition known as thyrotoxicosis) BMR can actually double. If too little thyroxin is produced (myxoedema) BMR may shrink to 30-40 percent of normal. Like thyroxin, adrenaline also increases the BMR but to a lesser extent.

    Exercise. Physical exercise not only influences body weight by burning calories, it also helps raise your BMR by building extra lean tissue. (Lean tissue is more metabolically demanding than fat tissue.) So you burn more calories even when sleeping.

    Short Term Factors Affecting BMR
    Illnesses such as a fever, high levels of stress hormones in the body and either an increase or decrease in the environmental temperature will result in an increase in BMR. Fasting, starving or malnutrition all result in a lowering of BMR. This lowering of BMR can be one side effect of following a diet and nothing else. Solely dieting , i.e. reducing the amount of calories the body takes on, will not be as affective as dieting and increased exercise. The negative effect of dieting on BMR can be offset with a positive effect from increased exercise.

    How to Calculate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

    The first step in designing a personal nutrition plan for yourself is to calculate how many calories you burn in a day; your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). TDEE is the total number of calories that your body expends in 24 hours, including all activities. TDEE is also known as your "maintenance level". Knowing your maintenance level will give you a starting reference point from which to begin your diet.

    According to exercise physiologists William McArdle and Frank Katch, the average maintenance level for women in the United States is 2000-2100 calories per day and the average for men is 2700-2900 per day. These are only averages; caloric expenditure can vary widely and is much higher for athletes or extremely active individuals. Some triathletes and ultra-endurance athletes may require as many as 6000 calories per day or more just to maintain their weight! Calorie requirements may also vary among otherwise identical individuals due to differences in inherited metabolic rates.

    Methods of determining caloric needs

    There are many different formulas you can use to determine your caloric maintenance level by taking into account the factors of age, sex, height, weight, lean body mass, and activity level. Any formula that takes into account your lean body mass (LBM) will give you the most accurate determination of your energy expenditure, but even without LBM you can still get a reasonably close estimate.

    The "quick" method (based on total bodyweight)
    A fast and easy method to determine calorie needs is to use total current body weight times a multiplier.

    Fat loss = 12 - 13 calories per lb. of bodyweight
    Maintenance (TDEE) = 15 - 16 calories per lb. of bodyweight
    Weight gain: = 18 - 19 calories per lb. of bodyweight

    This is a very easy way to estimate caloric needs, but there are obvious drawbacks to this method because it doesn't take into account activity levels or body composition. Extremely active individuals may require far more calories than this formula indicates. In addition, the more lean body mass one has, the higher the TDEE will be.

    Because body fatness is not accounted for, this formula may greatly overestimate the caloric needs if someone is extremely overfat. For example, a lightly active 50 year old woman who weighs 235 lbs. and has 34% body fat will not lose weight on 3000 calories per day (255 X 13 as per the "quick" formula for fat loss).

    Equations based on BMR.

    A much more accurate method for calculating TDEE is to determine basal metabolic rate (BMR) using multiple factors, including height, weight, age and sex, then multiply the BMR by an activity factor to determine TDEE. BMR is the total number of calories your body requires for normal bodily functions (excluding activity factors).

    This includes keeping your heart beating, inhaling and exhaling air, digesting food, making new blood cells, maintaining your body temperature and every other metabolic process in your body. In other words, your BMR is all the energy used for the basic processes of life itself. BMR usually accounts for about two-thirds of total daily energy expenditure.

    BMR may vary dramatically from person to person depending on genetic factors. If you know someone who claims they can eat anything they want and never gain an ounce of fat, they have inherited a naturally high BMR. BMR is at it's lowest when you are sleeping undisturbed and you are not digesting anything. It is very important to note that the higher your lean body mass is, the higher your BMR will be.

    This is very significant if you want to lose body fat because it means that the more muscle you have, the more calories you will burn. Muscle is metabolically active tissue, and it requires a great deal of energy just to Sustain it. It is obvious then that one way to increase your BMR is to engage in weight training in order to increase and/or maintain lean body mass. In this manner it could be said that weight training helps you lose body fat, albeit indirectly.

    The Harris-Benedict formula (BMR based on total body weight)

    The Harris Benedict equation is a calorie formula using the factors of height, weight, age, and sex to determine basal metabolic rate (BMR). This makes it more accurate than determining calorie needs based on total bodyweight alone. The only variable it does not take into consideration is lean body mass. Therefore, this equation will be very accurate in all but the extremely muscular (will underestimate caloric needs) and the extremely overfat (will overestimate caloric needs).

    Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 X wt in kg) + (5 X ht in cm) - (6.8 X age in years)
    Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 X wt in kg) + (1.8 X ht in cm) - (4.7 X age in years)

    Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm.
    1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs.

    You are female
    You are 30 yrs old
    You are 5' 6 " tall (167.6 cm)
    You weigh 120 lbs. (54.5 kilos)
    Your BMR = 655 + 523 + 302 - 141 = 1339 calories/day

    Now that you know your BMR, you can calculate TDEE by multiplying your BMR by your activity multiplier from the chart below:

    Activity Multiplier
    Sedentary = BMR X 1.2 (little or no exercise, desk job)
    Lightly active = BMR X 1.375 (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/wk)
    Mod. active = BMR X 1.55 (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/wk)
    Very active = BMR X 1.725 (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/wk)
    Extr. active = BMR X 1.9 (hard daily exercise/sports & physical job or 2X day training, i.e marathon, contest etc.)

    Your BMR is 1339 calories per day
    Your activity level is moderately active (work out 3-4 times per week)
    Your activity factor is 1.55
    Your TDEE = 1.55 X 1339 = 2075 calories/day

    Katch-McArdle formula (BMR based on lean body weight)

    If you have had your body composition tested and you know your lean body mass, then you can get the most accurate BMR estimate of all. This formula from Katch & McArdle takes into account lean mass and therefore is more accurate than a formula based on total body weight. The Harris Benedict equation has separate formulas for men and women because men generally have a higher LBM and this is factored into the men's formula. Since the Katch-McArdle formula accounts for LBM, this single formula applies equally to both men and women.

    BMR (men and women) = 370 + (21.6 X lean mass in kg)

    You are female
    You weigh 120 lbs. (54.5 kilos)
    Your body fat percentage is 20% (24 lbs. fat, 96 lbs. lean)
    Your lean mass is 96 lbs. (43.6 kilos)
    Your BMR = 370 + (21.6 X 43.6) = 1312 calories

    To determine TDEE from BMR, you simply multiply BMR by the activity multiplier:

    Your BMR is 1312
    Your activity level is moderately active (work out 3-4 times per week)
    Your activity factor is 1.55
    Your TDEE = 1.55 X 1312 = 2033 calories

    As you can see, the difference in the TDEE as determined by both formulas is statistically insignificant (2075 calories vs. 2033 calories) because the person we used as an example is average in body size and body composition. The primary benefit of factoring lean body mass into the equation is increased accuracy when your body composition leans to either end of the spectrum (very muscular or very obese).

    Adjust your caloric intake according to your goal

    Once you know your TDEE (maintenance level), the next step is to adjust your calories according to your primary goal. The mathematics of calorie balance are simple: To keep your weight at its current level, you should remain at your daily caloric maintenance level. To lose weight, you need to create a calorie deficit by reducing your calories slightly below your maintenance level (or keeping your calories the same and increasing your activity above your current level). To gain weight you need to increase your calories above your maintenance level. The only difference between weight gain programs and weight loss programs is the total number of calories required.

    Negative calorie balance is essential to lose body fat.

    Calories not only count, they are the bottom line when it comes to fat loss. If you are eating more calories than you expend, you simply will not lose fat, no matter what type of foods or food combinations you eat. Some foods do get stored as fat more easily than others, but always bear in mind that too much of anything, even "healthy food," will get stored as fat. You cannot override the laws of thermodynamics and energy balance. You must be in a calorie deficit to burn fat. This will force your body to use stored body fat to make up for the energy deficit.

    There are 3500 calories in a pound of stored body fat. If you create a 3500-calorie deficit in a week through diet, exercise or a combination of both, you will lose one pound. If you create a 7000 calories deficit in a week you will lose two pounds. The calorie deficit can be created through diet, exercise or preferably, with a combination of both. Because we already factored in the exercise deficit by using an activity multiplier, the deficit we are concerned with here is the dietary deficit.

    Calorie deficit thresholds: How low is too low?

    It is well known that cutting calories too much slows down the metabolic rate, decreases thyroid output and causes loss of lean mass, so the question is how much of a deficit do you need? There definitely seems to be a specific cutoff or threshold where further reductions in calories will have detrimental effects.

    The most common guideline for calorie deficits for fat loss is to reduce your calories by at least 500, but not more than 1000 below your maintenance level. For some, especially lighter people, 1000 calories may be too much of a deficit. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends that calorie levels never drop below 1200 calories per day for women or 1800 per day for men. Even these calorie levels are extremely low.

    A more individualized way to determine the safe calorie deficit would be to account for one's bodyweight or TDEE. Reducing calories by 15-20% below TDEE is a good place to start. A larger deficit may be necessary in some cases, but the best approach would be to keep the calorie deficit through diet small while increasing activity level.

    Example 1:
    Your weight is 120 lbs.
    Your TDEE is 2033 calories
    Your calorie deficit to lose weight is 500 calories
    Your optimal caloric intake for weight loss is 2033 - 500 = 1533 calories

    Example 2:
    Your calorie deficit to lose weight is 20% of TDEE (.20% X 2033 = 406 calories)
    Your optimal caloric intake for weight loss = 1627 calories

    Positive calorie balance is essential to gain lean bodyweight

    If you want to gain lean bodyweight and become more muscular, you must consume more calories than you burn up in a day. Provided that you are participating in a weight-training program of a sufficient intensity, frequency and volume, the caloric surplus will be used to create new muscle tissue. Once you've determined your TDEE, the next step is to increase your calories high enough above your TDEE that you can gain weight. It is a basic law of energy balance that you must be on a positive calorie balance diet to gain muscular bodyweight. A general guideline for a starting point for gaining weight is to add approximately 300-500 calories per day onto your TDEE. An alternate method is to add an additional 15 - 20% onto your TDEE.

    Your weight is 120 lbs.
    Your TDEE is 2033 calories
    Your additional calorie requirement for weight gain is + 15 - 20% = 305 - 406 calories
    Your optimal caloric intake for weight gain is 2033 + 305 - 406 = 2338 - 2439 calories

    Adjust your caloric intake gradually

    It is not advisable to make any drastic changes to your diet all at once. After calculating your own total daily energy expenditure and adjusting it according to your goal, if the amount is substantially higher or lower than your current intake, then you may need to adjust your calories gradually.

    For example, if your determine that your optimal caloric intake is 1900 calories per day, but you have only been eating 900 calories per day, your metabolism may be sluggish. An immediate jump to 1900 calories per day might actually cause a fat gain because your body has adapted to a lower caloric intake and the sudden jump up would create a surplus. The best approach would be to gradually increase your calories from 900 to 1900 over a period of a few weeks to allow your metabolism to speed up and acclimatize.

    Measure your results and adjust calories accordingly

    These calculations for finding your correct caloric intake are quite simplistic and are just estimates to give you a starting point. You will have to monitor your progress closely to make sure that this is the proper level for you. You will know if you’re at the correct level of calories by keeping track of your caloric intake, your bodyweight, and your body fat percentage.

    You need to observe your bodyweight and body fat percentage to see how you respond. If you don't see the results you expect, then you can adjust your caloric intake and exercise levels accordingly. The bottom line is that it’s not effective to reduce calories to very low levels in order to lose fat. In fact, the more calories you consume the better, as long as a deficit is created through diet and exercise. The best approach is to reduce calories only slightly and raise your daily calorie expenditure by increasing your frequency, duration and or intensity of exercise.

    Similar Bodybuilding Threads:


    •   Post Icon
      MuscleMecca Sponsors

      MuscleMecca Body building advertising
      Your Body building,
      Diet, Nutrition and Fitness,
      Muscle Building Community


        Support Muscle Mecca and Visit Our Sponsors

  2. Back To Top    #2
    Mecca V.I.P. tim290280's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Western Australia
    Nice to see it all summed up rather than an entire thread.

    Most Helpful Member 2008
    December 2008 MOTM
    My Log - Join the Journey!
    Aussie Lift-Off

  3. Back To Top    #3
    This is the article forum, correct?


  4. Back To Top    #4


  5. Back To Top    #5
    Mecca V.I.P. tim290280's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Western Australia
    Quote Originally Posted by Future View Post
    This is the article forum, correct?
    Yep. Good to see it all in one place. The nutrition section is littered with parts of this info. Now we can point people to one spot


  6. Back To Top    #6
    Nicely explained, or it would be nice to just get your BMR measured. Could be rather expensive but will be more precise. I got mine measured while participating for the OMRON study at the University of AZ. So maybe others who want to get their BMR measured should go to their local university and see if they are performing any studies. Would be a good way to find out your body composition and BMR. Just a thought on this subject as well.

    Thanks for the article Future

    [April|MOTM] Braaq
    How to Calculate Your Daily Caloric Needs

    • MuscleMecca Sponsors

      MuscleMecca Body building advertising
      Your Muscle Building,
      Power Lifting, Weight Training
      Body Building Forum


         We stand behind our bodybuilding products and assure QUALITY



Tags for this Thread

collapse Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
By agreeing to the above you are also agreeing to our Terms of Use and our Privacy Statement.