27 alkaloids within Kratom
Ajmalicine (Raubasine) : This hard-to-pronounce alkaloid enhances cerebral circulation through the blood vessels responsible for carrying blood through the network supplying the brain. Personally, I believe that this alkaloid may be responsible for rising the body temperature and giving you the feeling warm feeling associated with strains like Maeng Da.
This alkaloid is also an anti-adrenergic (at alpha-1) which means it inhibits the transmission of epinephrine and norepinephrine signals. This also categorizes it is a Sympatholytic, which is a class of substances that can be used as anti-hypertensives . They are also used to treat anxiety disorders. Anti-adrenergics are Alpha and Beta blockers which inhibit adrenergic receptors. Alpha and Beta blockers are both great for treating anxiety issues and can be effective in aiding people who suffer from PTSD. Alpha blockers in particular have been shown to help people who have issues with aggression, impulsiveness, emotional outbursts, and have also been effective in treating insomnia and nightmare episodes.
This alkaloid is also a sedative, anti-convulsant, and a smooth muscle-relaxer.
Ciliaphylline : This alkaloid is an antitussive which essentially means it’s effective against cough and cold symptoms. This could also suggest that it may be effective at preventing colds altogether.
This alkaloid is also an analgesic which is a substance used to relieve pain. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Corynantheidine : This alkaloid is an opioid antagonist which are receptor antagonists that act on the opioid receptors. Some opioid antagonists are not pure antagonists but they do produce some weak opioid agonist effects, and can produce analgesic effects when taken in higher doses to people who’s bodies are not yet accustomed to opioids.
Corynoxeine : This alkaloid is a calcium channel blocker. This means that this substance blocks the movement of calcium through calcium channels, which ultimately aids in hypertension and reducing blood pressure. This is great for people with high blood pressure. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Corynoxine A and B : This alkaloid is a dopamine mediating anti-locomotive.
Epicatechin : This alkaloid is an important one. It has many functions and it is also a substance found in dark chocolate. It is an antioxidant, and anti-aggregant, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic (levels blood sugar), anti-hepatitic (counters the effects of hepatitis), anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic (counters effects of leukemia), anti-viral, an alpha amylase inhibitor, and an anti-mutagen, which essentially means it contains micro-nutrients which act against mutagens that can damage DNA. These mutagens can be carcinogens and potentially cause cancer. This also means that this alkaloid can help to prevent cancer!
9-hydroxycorynantheidine : This alkaloid is a partial opioid agonist.
7-hydroxymitragynine : This alkaloid is the primary psychoactive in Kratom and is largely responsible for the changes in mood and assisting in depression and anxiety. It is also an anti-tussive, analgesic, and helps to reverse diarrhea. This alkaloid represents roughly 2% of the total alkaloid content in a Kratom leaf.
Isomitraphylline : This alkaloid is an immunostimulant, which is a nutrient that stimulates the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of its components. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Isomitrafolnie : This alkaloid is relatively new in Kratom research, and there is not a lot known about it. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Isopteropodine : This alkaloid is an immunostimulant, which works like Isomitraphylline.
Isorhynchophylline : This alkaloid is another immunostimulant. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Isospeciofoline : I couldn’t find much information on this alkaloid but it has been found and identified within the Kratom plant. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Mitraciliatine : I couldn’t find much on this one as well. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Mitragynine : This alkaloid is an indole alkaloid which means it contains the structural moiety of indole. Many indole alkaloids also include isoprene groups and are then referred to as ‘terpene indole‘ alkaloids. This class of alkaloids is said to contain more than 4,100 different compounds which makes it one of the largest classes of alkaloids. Many of them possess significant physiological activity and some of them are used in medicine. The amino acid tryptophan is the biochemical precursor of indole alkaloids. Roughly 66% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom. Wowza!
Mitragynine oxindole B : This alkaloid is a 9-methoxy oxindole of the allo series obtained by synthesis from the knownallo indole alkaloid Mitragynine. There is some interesting information about it in a book called ‘The Alkaloids‘. Check it out, although it’s definitely not in human English… This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Mitrafoline : This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Mitraphylline : This alkaloid is another of the oxindole alkaloids and is another than binds itself to our opioid receptors, even though it is non-narcotic. This is another important player in the make-up of the Kratom plant. It is also a vasodilator, which means it widens the blood vessels and in particular large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles. This results from relaxation of smooth muscles within the vessel walls. This is beneficial because this activity lowers blood-pressure and increases oxygen intake. This alkaloid is also a muscle relaxer, a diuretic, anti-amnesic, anti-leukemic, and a possible immunostimulant. This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Mitraversine : Unfortunately, I couldn’t find anything on this alkaloid
Paynantheine : This alkaloid is also an indole alkaloid and a smooth muscle relaxer. This alkaloid respresents 8.6 to 9% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Rynchophylline : This alkaloid is a vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, calcium channel, anti-aggregant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic (fever reducer), anti-arrythmic (alkaloid that suppresses abnormal rhythms of the heart), and an anthelmintic (alkaloid that expels parasitic worms). This alkaloid represents < 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Speciociliatine : This alkaloid is a weak opioid agonist. This alkaloid represents 0.8 to 1% of total alkaloids found in Kratom leaf.
Speciofoline : This alkaloid is a phenolic oxindole
Speciogynine : This alkaloid is a smooth muscle relaxer. This alkaloid represents 6.6% to 7% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf.
Speciophylline: Indole alkaloid. Anti-leukemic. This alkaloid represents <1% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf.
Stipulatine : Unfortunately, I couldn’t find anything on this alkaloid either.
Tetrahydroalstonine: Hypoglycemic, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-2), which means that it works by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. The SNS is part of the automatic nervous system. The ANS helps to regulate your body’s reaction to stress or to an emergency. During these situations, the SNS releases chemicals called neurotransmitters from the adrenal gland. These chemicals act on your body to increase heart rate, sweating, and breathing rate, and decreases the digestion process. This is essentially, the fight or flight response. The chemical norepinephrine is the chemical that acts directly on the receptors. Kratom doesn’t make you feel like you’re on an adrenaline rush, but there might be enough of this alkaloid within the plant to stimulate the nervous system, which causes the stimulating effects when taking smaller doses. While Kratom does stimulate quite well, it doesn’t make your heart race and make you feel uncomfortable.