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Silverback Bodybuilding Compounds

Macro and Micronutrients Explained!

Fatality

Mecca V.I.P.
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NUTRIENTS & WHERE TO FIND 'EM

This thread is meant as a quick reference guide to explain briefly what nutrients are and the main sources of them. It isnt an in depth discussion about nutrients or any aspects of them, simply a quick reference guide, handy for n00bs or for anyone wanting to ensure they have a balanced diet.

The thread is divided into sections. The first covers the macronutrients plus water and fibre. From there the thread moves to vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients to alcohols and artificial food components which are briefly mentioned due to the frequency they appear in modern foods. This is followed up by a links section which also doubles as the references for this thread.

After a nutrient is listed and basically described, at least 5 examples of whole foods high in that particular nutrient are listed. What you will notice is the foods which come up again and again. Lean meats, dairy, grains, fruits, vegetables, etc. These foods should be forming the basis and majority of your diet. This thread is also handy if you wanted to choose a food to enable you to up your intake of a certain nutrient such as a particular mineral.

I hope it is of help to people, please feel free to add anything Ive missed, ask any questions or make any comments. If you do find something Ive missed, add it up, not necessarily in a table format, any way is fine, the more complete this list is, the better

This is something the Nutrition forum needs!
 

Fatality

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Water


Dihydrogen oxide (H2O) or water is a colourless, tasteless liquid under normal circumstances. Liquid water is essential to life and therefore is the most important and essential nutrient. Water is obtained by drinking and by eating food. It is mainly lost through perspiration, respiration and urination. Water contains no calories.
 

Fatality

Mecca V.I.P.
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Sorry guys, having trouble posting, I don't know why. Apparently, I can only post in sections now, but I'll keep on trying to post long and informative information. I'll give it a few days to see what's going on.
 

<3Frosty

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Your internet may just suck. It happens with me at my apartment. I can only post in short bursts. Anything long and it wont work.
 

Fatality

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Protein:

Protein is one of the basic components of food and makes all life possible. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All of the antibodies and enzymes, and many of the hormones in the body are proteins. They provide for the transport of nutrients, oxygen and waste throughout the body. They provide the structure and contracting capability of muscles. They also provide collagen to connective tissues of the body and to the tissues of the skin, hair and nails. Proteins contain 4 calories per gram.

MEATS - Meat cuts should be lean, trimmed & skinless.

- Poultry: Chicken, Turkey, Goose, Game Birds, etc. (Be sure to remove skin. If buying ground meat ensure it is lean.)
- Red Meat: Any quality lean meat from Cows, Elk, Buffalo, Kangaroo, Game. (If buying ground meat ensure it is lean.)
- Other Meats: Pork, Lamb, Lean Ham, etc. (Ensure you buy the leaner cuts as these meats can be quite fatty.)
- Fish: Fresh Cod, Snapper, Salmon, Swordfish, Canned Fish. (Most fish are lean but the fattier fish are high in healthy fats)
- Shellfish: Includes: Mussels, Oysters, Scallops, Prawns, Lobsters, etc.

DAIRY - Choose mostly low fat dairy products

- Milk, Powdered Milk (Choose mostly skim milk. Can be Cow/goat/sheep, etc)
- Low Fat Cottage Cheese & Natural Yoghurt. (These foods include the benefits of bacterial cultures to improve gut health)
- Cheeses & Other Dairy Products. (Cheeses are very high in fat, choose softer cheeses where possible)
- Eggs, Powdered Egg (Egg whites are pure protein, egg yolks contain fat and protein)

VEGETABLE PROTEINS - Vegetable proteins are often "incomplete" so it is wise to vary them or add dairy/meat

- Raw Nuts & Seeds: (These are also high in healthy fats and contain carbohydrate)
- Grain Protein: (Many grains eg: wheats, rices, etc contain significant amounts of proteins)
- Bean/Vegetable Protein: (Soyabeans are the main protein source here, although other beans and vegetables contain protein)

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS These are available in powders/bars/drinks/etc.

- Whey Protein: (A fast digesting milk protein. Available in various forms/fractions)
- Casein Protein: (A slow digesting milk protein.)
- Soy Protein: (Derived from soyabeans.)
- Egg Protein: (Primarily the protein albumin, this is a slow digesting protein)
- Vegetable Proteins: (Can be found in the form of Wheat, Pea, Spirulina Protein, etc)

- Amino Acids: (These are the building blocks of proteins. They are present in protein containing foods or available as free form powders or capsules. The essential amino acids * are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body from other available resources, and therefore must be supplied as part of the diet. "Complete" proteins contain all of these, whilst "incomplete" proteins do not. The amino acids are:


Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine*, Leucine*, Lysine, Methionine*, Phenylalanine*, Proline, Serine, Threonine*, Tryptophan*, Tyrosine, Valine*



Carbohydrates: Complex carbs also contain fibre.

Carbohydrates are the chief source of energy for all bodily functions and muscular exertion. They are necessary for the digestion and assimilation of other foods. They help regulate protein and fat metabolism, and fats require carbohydrates to be broken down in the liver. They also provide some of the structural components necessary for the growth and repair of tissues. All carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram.

SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES - These are the small molecule carbohydrates or sugars

- Sugar Cane & Sugar Beets (The main commercial sources of sugar)
- Fresh Fruit & Berries (These contain mainly fructose, a low GI sugar)
- Honey (Honey contains a mix of glucose and fructose)
- Milk (Milk and milk products contain the sugar lactose)
- Prepared Sugars (Glucose/Fructose/Lactose/Maltose, etc. Found in drinks or free form)


COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES - These are long chains of simple carbohydrates, that breakdown to release sugars

- Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Pumpkin & Squash
- Yams, Parsnips & Other Root Vegetables
- Corn, Oats Wheat & Other Grains.
- Wholegrain Flours, Breads & Pastas.
- Brans, Weet Bix & Shredded Wheat Cereals.
- Ancient Grains (Amaranth, Millet, Teth, etc).
- Basmati, Brown & Wild Rice.
- Raw Nuts, Seeds, Beans, Lentils, Couscous & Other Pulses, etc.
- Vegetables such as Carrots and Peas.



Fats / Oils: All oils ideally should be cold pressed, extra virgin and of high quality.

Fatty acids are individual isomers of what we more commonly call "fats". There are potentially hundreds of different fatty acids, but just a few dozen that are commonly found in the foods we eat. Nutritionists commonly classify dietary fat as either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated, based on the number of double bonds that exist in the fat's molecular structure. For each of these three classes, there exists a large number of different chemical variations or "isomers". These include the EFA's or Essential Fatty Acids. Fats are required to produce and build new cells. They are a source of energy and are critical in the transmission of nerve impulses and brain function and development. They are also involved in the synthesis of other essential molecules such as hormones. Fats contain 9 calories per gram.

VEGETABLE FAT SOURCES - These are mostly high in mono and polyunsaturated fats and contain EFA's

- Flaxseed, Hempseed, Evening Primrose, Almond, Canola, Olive and Most Other Plant Oils.
- Whole Raw Nuts & Seeds (Some whole seeds need to be cracked or ground to be digested)
- MCT Oils (These are medium chain saturated fats derived from coconut oil, available as a supplement)

ANIMAL FAT SOURCES - These can be high in mono and polyunsaturated and saturated fats and contain EFA's

- Salmon, Cod, Halibut, Shellfish & Other Fatty Fish/Fish Oils (Fish are high in unsaturated fats and EFA's)
- Dairy Products (Can vary in fat content wildly and can contain high levels of saturated fat)
- Lean Meat & Poultry (Even when trimmed and skinless, these provide fat. Can be high in saturated fat)
- Eggs (Only the yolk contains the mainly saturated fat)



Fibre - Fibre has no caloric value but is still classed as a macronutrient

Dietary fibers are large carbohydrate molecules containing many different sorts of monosaccharides. The key difference between fiber and other carbohydrates is that they are not broken down by the human digestive system.

There Are Two Types Of Fiber: Soluble & Insoluble

These are often found together in the same source.

Soluble fibres can be dissolved in water (hence the name). These fibers are beneficial in that they can slow the speed of digestion due to their thickness. They are also helpful in maintaining artery health.

Insoluble fibers are such things as cellulose which do not dissolve in water. Insoluble fibers do not affect the speed of digestion. They are beneficial to gut health.

- Broccoli / Cauliflower / Cabbage
- Celery / Lettuce / Spinach / Watercress
- Mushrooms / Onions / Carrots
- Green Beans / Peas / Asparagus / Kale
- Bean & Vegetable Sprouts / Beetroot / Leeks
- Cucumber / Zucchini / Aubergine
- Tomato / Capsicum / Silverbeet
- Frozen Mixed Vegetables
- Any Other Non-starchy Vegetable (or similar) of Any Colour
- Any Grain or Grain Product
- Fruits & Berries
- Legumes
 

Fatality

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Vitamin A - Retinol, Retinal & Retinoic Acid

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with multiple functions in the body. It helps cells differentiate, an essential part of cell reproduction. It is a central component for healthy vision; vitamin A nourishes cells in various structures of the eye and is required for the transduction of light into nerve signals in the retina. It is required during pregnancy, stimulating normal growth and development of the fetus by influencing genes that determine the sequential growth of organs in embryonic development. It influences the function and development of sperm, ovaries and placenta and is a vital component of the reproductive process.

- Eggs & Dairy
- Salmon and Fish
- Yellow Fruits & Vegetables
- Prunes
- Blueberries


Vitamin B1 - Thiamin

Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin that the body requires to break down carbohydrates, fat and protein. Every cell of the body requires vitamin B1 to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Vitamin B1 is also essential for the proper functioning of nerve cells.

- Whole Grains
- Meat
- Nuts
- Yeast Products
- Legumes


Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin

Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that helps the body process amino acids and fats, activate vitamin B6 and folic acid, and helps convert carbohydrates to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant.

- Leafy Green Vegetables
- Fish
- Eggs & Dairy
- Meat & organ Meats
- Whole Grains


Vitamin B3 - Niacin

Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration and helps release the energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It also supports proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids. It is used in the synthesis of sex hormones, treating schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and as a memory-enhancer.

- Poultry & Meats
- Nuts
- Whole Grains
- Fish
- Dairy Products


Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B5 plays an important role in releasing energy from sugars and fats. It is also important in the production of fats and also has a role in modifying the shape of proteins.

- Peas & Beans
- Whole Grains
- Meats
- Poultry
- Fruits


Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine & Pyridoxine

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B complex. Vitamin B6 plays a role in the synthesis of antibodies by the immune system, which are needed to fight many diseases. It helps maintain normal nerve function and also acts in the formation of red blood cells. Vitamin B6 is also required for the chemical reactions needed to digest proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more the need for vitamin B6.

- Bananas
- Potatoes
- Meats & Organ Meats
- Fish & Poultry
- Leafy Green Vegetables

Vitamin B9 - Folic Acid

Vitamin B9, also known as Folic acid, is a B vitamin necessary for cell replication and growth. Folic acid helps form building blocks of DNA, which holds the body?s genetic information, and building blocks of RNA, needed for protein synthesis. Folic acid is most important, then, for rapidly growing tissues, such as those of a fetus, and rapidly regenerating cells, like red blood cells and immune cells.


- Leafy Greens
- Fermented Foods
- Offal Meats
- Bran Cereals
- Tea


Vitamin B12 - Cyanocobalamin

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA replication, and production of the mood-affecting substance SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine). Vitamin B12 acts with folic acid and vitamin B6 to control homocysteine levels. An excess of homocysteine has been linked to an increased risk of coronary disease, stroke and other diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer?s.

- Dairy Products
- Eggs
- Fish
- Meats
- Fermented foods


Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble vitamin that has a wide range of functions in the human body.

One of vitamin C?s important functions is acting as an antioxidant, protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage. When LDL is damaged the cholesterol appears to lead to heart disease, but vitamin C acts as an important antioxidant protector of LDL. Vitamin C may also protect against heart disease by reducing the stiffness of arteries and the tendency of platelets to coagulate in the vein.

Vitamin C has a range of additional functions. Its is needed to make collagen, a substance that strengthens many parts of the body, such as muscles and blood vessels, and plays important roles in healing and as an antihistamine. Vitamin C also aids in the formation of liver bile which helps to detoxify alcohol and other substances. Evidence indicates that vitamin C levels in the eye decrease with age and that vitamin C supplements prevent this decrease, lowering the risk of developing cataracts.


- Berries
- Fruits esp. citrus
- Red Peppers & Tomatoes
- Broccoli & Spinach
- Sprouts


Vitamin D - Calcitriol

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps maintain blood levels of calcium, by increasing absorption from food and reducing urinary calcium loss. Both functions help keep calcium in the body and therefore spare the calcium that is stored in bones. Vitamin D may also transfer calcium from the bone to the blood, which may actually weaken bones. Though the overall effect of vitamin D on the bones is complicated, some vitamin D is certainly necessary for healthy bones and teeth.

- Fatty Fish
- Eggs
- Organ Meats
- Milk
- Sunlight


Vitamin E - Alpha-Tocopherol

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as LDL cholesterol (the ?bad? cholesterol), from damage. Several studies have reported that supplements of natural vitamin E help reduce the risk of heart attacks.

Vitamin E also plays some role in the body?s ability to process glucose. Some trials suggest that vitamin E may help in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

In the last decade, the functions of vitamin E have been further clarified. In addition to its antioxidant functions, vitamin E has now been shown to directly effect inflammation, blood cell regulation, connective tissue growth and genetic control of cell division.

- Nuts & Seeds
- Avocado
- Vegtables and Vegetable Oils
- Whole Grains
- Organ Meats & Eggs


Vitamin H - Biotin

Vitamin H is actually part of the B-complex. It is involved in energy production, synthesis of fatty acids and support of nervous system growth

- Dairy Products
- Meat & Poultry
- Oats & Grains
- Soyabeans and Legumes
- Mushrooms & Nuts


Vitamin K - Phylloquinone & Menaquinone

Vitamin K is necessary for proper bone growth and blood coagulation. Vitamin K accomplishes this by helping the body transport calcium. Vitamin K is used to treat overdoses of the drug warfarin. Also, doctors prescribe vitamin K to prevent excessive bleeding in people taking warfarin but requiring surgery.

- Leafy Vegetables
- Whole Grains
- Eggs
- Polyunsaturated Oils
- Seaweed
 

Fatality

Mecca V.I.P.
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I was only able to get the two previous posts in but I wasn't able to get the rest in, I will once I'm able to.
 
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